What are the impact of the 2018 Tax Reform on your individual tax return?
Updated: May 16, 2019
The recently enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) has altered the tax landscape for a lot of individuals and businesses. Due to the sweeping nature of the changes and the need for continued guidance, this Blog provide a high level of planning opportunities for your specific situation. Additional conversations and tax projections are likely necessary to ensure you maximize your tax benefits. At Whin Global Tax Services , we have the skills to assist you in your tax compliance and planning needs.
Changes in tax rates
The new law still has seven rates, but they are now generally lower with the highest rate being reduced from 39.6% to 37%. The tax rates applicable to net capital gains and qualified dividends did not change.
Increased standard deduction
The new standard deductions are: Heads of household: $18,000; Married filing jointly: $24,000; All other taxpayers: $12,000. Certain individuals may not need to an income tax return preparation from tax services provides based on the higher filing threshold. But you still need to file a tax return with your accountant to get that tax refund!
Although you may have historically had itemized deductions exceeding these amounts, other changes to itemized deductions may affect whether you are above the standard deduction in a given year. The increased standard deduction is effective through Dec. 31, 2025.
Elimination of personal and dependent exemptions
The TCJA eliminated these exemptions through Dec. 31, 2025. But you must report your dependents on your return to benefits from certain tax credits.
Child and family tax credit
The TCJA increased the child credit for children under age 17 to $2,000 and also introduced a new $500 credit for a taxpayer’s dependents who are not their qualifying children. In addition, the phase-out limits for these credits have increased to $400,000 for joint filers ($200,000 for others), so that more individuals will be able to take advantage of this credit.
You can't claim a child tax credit if you take the foreign earned incom exclusion and file form 2555 or form 2555-EZ.
Changes to itemized deductions
The overall phase out of itemized deductions has been repealed.
The itemized deduction for state and local taxes is limited to a total of $10,000 ($5,000 for those using the filing status of married filing separately). For example, if you paid $15,000 in state income taxes and $6,000 in real estate taxes on your home ($21,000 in total), you would not be able to deduct the $11,000 that exceeds the deduction threshold.
Mortgage interest on loans used to acquire a principal residence and a second home is only deductible on debt up to $750,000 (down from $1 million). Loans in existence on December 15, 2017 are grandfathered (balance up to $1 million still allowed).
Interest on home equity indebtedness (such as a home equity line of credit) is no longer deductible unless the debt is really acquisition indebtedness (used for home improvement). Consider whether the indebtedness was used for business or investment purposes to determine if an interest deduction may be available in a different category.
Cash donations to public charities are now deductible up to 60% of adjusted gross income.
Donations to colleges and universities for ticket or seat rights at sporting events are no longer deductible.
Miscellaneous itemized deductions, such as investment management fees, tax preparation fees, unreimbursed employee business expenses and safe deposit box rental fees are no longer deductible.
Medical expenses are deductible by the amount the expenses exceed 7.5% of adjusted gross income for 2018 (limit changes to 10% starting in 2019).
These changes (except as noted) to itemized deductions are in effect from Jan. 1, 2018 through Dec. 31, 2025.
A new deduction, effective for tax years 2018 through 2025, was introduced in the TCJA that allows individuals a deduction of 20% of qualified business income from a partnership, S corporation or sole proprietorship, as well as 20% of qualified real estate investment trust (REIT) dividends and qualified publicly traded partnership income. This deduction will reduce taxable income, but not adjusted gross income, and is available regardless of whether you itemize your deductions. There are many limitations and restrictions to this provision, so we advise that you schedule a personal consultation with us to fully understand the impact on your situation. This deduction is available to US trade or businesses. Foreign source income doesn't qualify for this deduction. Section 199A applies to US source qualified business income.
Sec. 529 plans
Sec. 529 plans have been a widely used tool to help taxpayers save money for college, presuming they distribute that money for qualified higher-education costs. Depending on your Sec. 529 plan, you may be eligible for a state tax deduction for contributions to the plan. The TCJA expanded the opportunities available for education tax planning by permitting $10,000 per year to be distributed from Sec. 529 plans to pay for private elementary and secondary tuition. Contact us to learn how these new rules may help you pay for private school tuition for your family. Unless specifically mentioned, we believe foreign accredited private elementary schools qualify for this distribution free tuition from 529 plans.
Question: can you use a 529 plan distribution toward tuition for a private elementary school in UK without paying taxes and penalties if all other requirements are met?
Answer: Yes, we believe So.
Estate and gift tax exemptions
Estate and gift tax laws have undergone a number of changes over the past decade. Under the TCJA, the estate and gift tax exemption has doubled to $11.2 million per person effective as of Jan. 1, 2018. There is still guidance necessary to reconcile gifts made and estates that occurred prior to the increased exemption and the impact on portability. We would be pleased to work collaboratively with your estate planning attorney to make sure your estate plan is appropriate with this change.
Individual shared responsibility payment